Sistem Manajemen Dana dan Sistem Pengganggaran Keuangan

Sistem manajemen dana bertujuan untuk memastikan bahwa pendapatan yang diterima perusahaan lebih besar daripada pengeluaran. Dalam melakukan manajemen terhadap dana atau kas, biasanya digunakan laporan-laporan keuangan bulanan atau tahunan. Misalnya, pendapatan pada Mei hingga Agustus lebih besar dibandingkan dengan pendapatan pada Januari hingga April. Kondisi seperti itu tidak berarti bahwa keuangan di dalam perusahaan mengalami peningkatan. Untuk memastikan analisis terhadap pengeluaran perusahaan. Dalam kondisi tersebut, bisa jadi pengeluaran Mei hingga Agustus lebih besar daripada pendapatan pada periode tersebut.

Analisis untuk menelusuri arus masuk pendapaan dan pengeluaran ini disebut dengan analisis arus kas (Cas Flow Analysis). Sedangkan alat yang digunakan untuk melakukan analisis tersebut dinamakan model arus kas (cash flow model) (McLeod, 1995)
Sistem Manajemen Dana dan keuangan

Sistem Penganggaran Keuangan
Penganggaran keuangan dilakukan dengan mengevaluasi tingkat keuntungan serta dampak keuntungan dari dana yang dikeluarkan. Anggaran-anggaran yang diusulkan dianalisis dengan mengambil data historis yang tersedia. Dalam melakukan penganggaran, terdapat tiga pendekatan yang didapat digunakan untuk menentukan anggaran perusahaan. Ketiga pendepatan tersebut yaitu:

- Pendekatan Top-Down
Dalam pendekatan top-down, eksekutif perusahaan menentukan anggaran-anggaran tersebut ditekankan pada tingkat-tingkat manajemen dibawahnya. Pendekatan ini biasanya diambil karena eksekutif perusahaan dianggap lebih memahami tujuan-tujuan jangka panjang perusahaan, sehingga perusahaan akan lebih mudah dalam mencapai tujuan-tujuan tersebut. Pendekatan top-down memiliki kelemahan pada kebutuhan dana untuk menjalankan kegiatan operasional perusahaan. Eksekutif memandang bahwa dana yang dianggarkan cukup realistis untuk menjalankan kegiatan-kegiatan tersebut. Akan tetapi, manajemen tingkat bawah akan merasa dana yang dianggarkan tersebut sangat terbatas, sehingga kegiatan-kegiatan operasional tidak dapat diselesaikan dengan maksimal.

-Pendekatan Bottom -up
Dalam pendekatan bottom -up. Proses penganggaran dimulai dan tingkat manajemen paling bawah kemudian diajukan kepada level organisasi di atasnya. Hal ini dilakukan dengan pertimbangan bahwa pada tingkat paling bawah lebih memahami kegiatan kegiatan yang menentukan keberhasilan suatu perusahaan. Pada pendekatan bottom up sering terjadi ketidakseimbangan antara anggaran yang dianggarkan dengan hasil kerja operasionalnya. Manajemen yang lebih rendah biasanya akan meminta dana yang lebih besar untuk melaksanakan kegiatan operasionalnya. Selain itu, pada pendekatan bottom up juga terjadi kecurigaan oleh eksekutif perusahaan terhadap manajemen dibawahnya yang meminta jumlah anggaran yang tidak realistis.

-Pendekatan Partisipasi
Penentuan anggaran dengan pendekatan partisipasi ini melibatkan eksekutif perusahaan dengan pihak pihak yang terkait dengan penganggaran tersebut, baik pada tingkat manajemen menengah, bawah maupun tingkat operasional. Pendekatan ini digunakan untuk memperbaiki kelemahan-kelemahan yang muncul pada pendekatan top-down dan pendekatan bootom up.

Semoga bermanfaat.

sumber: Buku Sistem Informasi, Konsep dan Aplikasi
Penulis: Agus Mulyanto

10 Easy Steps to Succeed in Your Online Classes

Congratulations Youve made up our minds to pursue your upper schooling, and doing so online is how to pass if you have an interest in a versatile, studentcentered educating manner. Studying online permits you to pursue different pursuits and attend to different responsibilities whilst nonetheless operating your method towards some extent. However, it will now and again imply that its clean to get distracted. Here are 10 clean steps to verify luck on your online categories.

  1. Connect together with your instructors once conceivable. Even in case you are doing smartly within the category, its extraordinarily vital to increase a rapport together with your trainer. When you do that early on, you temporarily understand what the priorities are within the route, what expectancies the professor has of you and youre going to be motivated to prevail, surer of whats forward and higher ready to do smartly with the impending subject material.

Valuable questions to invite your trainer come with the next

How versatile are you with time limits How versatile are you with grownup freshmen What applied sciences do you employ within the route How to be had are you through e mail and different sorts of verbal exchange How do you put up an internet neighborhood and what are the expectancies for participation in it In addition, since instructors are to be had to lend a hand all over the classes, its all the time just right to have had private touch with the trainer early on. This method, when you wish to have lend a hand, its more straightforward to achieve out and get the help you wish to have.

  1. Confirm the technical necessities of the route. Online categories can also be very advisable for college kids with busy schedules, however provided that they are able to simply get right of entry to the fabrics. It is vital to obviously perceive what the technical necessities are. So, ahead of the route begins or as quickly thereafter as conceivable, youll want to test that your pc will paintings with the entire online equipment, and that you understand how to navigate them. This will be sure that you dont must spend time all the way through the route attempting to determine the generation.

three. Create a time table and stick with it. Quality online instructors create classes which might be clean to navigate and feature transparent expectancies. Having that roughly easytodealwith framework in position will make learning and succeeding that a lot more straightforward. However, although the framework and necessities of your category arent as transparent, youll create a time table and construction, which is able to very much fortify your probabilities of luck within the route. Using equipment equivalent to Google Calendar is a good way to start out. Knowing how your weeks and months glance and scheduling blocks of analysis time for each and every activity or module will will let you stick with a time table.

four. Ask questionsall the time. When you dont perceive, ask questions. When you do perceive, ask additional questions. Instructors recognize scholars who take part, and if theres a participation or dialogue part a part of the grade, then asking high quality questions is helping guarantee your grade on this space. Even if there isnt a participation part, its all the time helpful to invite inquiries to remember to perceive the fabric and are transparent on what is needed of you.

five. Be arrangedand keep arranged. Students whore taking conventional, campusbased classes most often have a constant time table to observe each and every week, through which study room instruction is adopted through assignments out of doors the category. However, for online classes, scholars will have to search out their very own techniques to stick on most sensible in their paintings. It is crucial that you just be arranged from the start of the semester with the intention to achieve success in an internet route. For instance mark task due dates on your calendar, discover a submitting machine for each online subject material and bodily subject material that is helping you stay monitor of the whole lot simply, and shed light on find out about schedules that duvet sections of the route one by one so youve got an arranged tactic to protecting the semesters subject material as you pass alongside.

  1. Have a blank, quiet, and constant workspace. One factor online and inclass classes have in not unusual is that scholars all the time want a spot to review or whole assignments this is blank, quiet, and constant. You can select the place that is for youwhether or not its at a espresso store, a college library, a devoted place of business, or at house. Wherever you select to review and whole assignments, you must make it a constant location that doesnt have out of doors distractions. It is basically key that where is quiet and lets you focal point in your paintings with out distractions.
  2. Do no longer procrastinate. Successful distance freshmen hardly procrastinate. They dont do away with assignments or wait till the final second to write down their papers. Successful online scholars experience freedoms that come with operating at their very own tempo and the facility to finish their paintings in as a lot time because it takes them. On the opposite hand, they know that finishing their assignments is best performed early and on time cramming merely doesnt paintings, and it doesnt will let you retain knowledge longterm. Get began early on getting a success.

eight. Work in your studying comprehension. Successful distance freshmen generally tend to have just right studying comprehension abilities. Most conventional, campusbased scholars concentrate to lectures and take notes, and a few online classes additionally require this. However, the vast majority of distance freshmen are anticipated to grasp subject material thru a large amount of studying. Although far finding out classes be offering video recordings and audio clips, maximum systems require scholars to hide and grasp a considerable amount of written knowledge. If it is a problem for you, it could be very useful to first sign up in a studying comprehension route there are lots of assets online that will help you do that. This ability by myself could make a huge distinction on your luck.

nine. Establish and admire routines that be just right for you. If, for instance, youre employed best within the morning or in brief bursts, then set find out about routines that can help you find out about within the prelunch hours when your mind is contemporary. If, then again, you do best through learning at evening or at the weekends when youll devote nightowl hours or longer blocks in your learning, then make it some degree to take action. Consider how and whilst you paintings best, and enforce a find out about plan that respects the routines that be just right for you.

  1. Connect together with your friends. Establishing sturdy connections with friends and professors is a very powerful facet of tutorial luck, in addition to skilled development. One of essentially the most rewarding reports in schooling is finding out thru collaboration. Forming significant relationships together with your friends and professors can can help you be told extra, keep motivated, and feature an outlet to specific your personal working out of subject material. So, keep attached thru message forums, chat rooms, e mail, and different digital assets. And take note lots of the other people you meet in faculty shall be conceivable process assets down the road so determine connections and keep in contact

Florida National University gives a wealth of tutorial and professional online classes. Check out the entire choicesyour long run is ready